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branches access to your bank is closed and you can bank confidently 24/7 through Green Machine ATMs, Easy Line Telephone Banking or Easy Web Online banking and the TD App. There has been increasing interest in using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) as a tool for imaging flow in preclinical research and clinical applications. LSCI utilizes intrinsic tissue contrast from dynamic light scattering and provides a relatively simple technique for visualizing detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of blood flow changes in real-time. \begin K = \frac \end Laser speckle is the random interference pattern produced when coherent light scatters from a random medium and can be imaged onto a detector. Motion from scattering particles, such as red blood cells in the vasculature, leads to spatial and temporal variations in the speckle pattern. Speckle contrast analysis quantifies the local spatial variance (\(\)), or blurring, of the speckle pattern that results from blood flow. Areas with greater motion have more rapid intensity fluctuations and therefore have more blurring of the speckles during the camera exposure time. LSCI can be used to quantify relative changes in blood flow, and has been studied both in animal models and in the clinic. In our lab, we focus on functional brain imaging and use LSCI to study cerebral blood flow (CBF) dynamics. CBF is an important hemodynamic parameter in the brain that can be used to study neurological events such as stroke, cortical spreading depression, and functional activation. We use LSCI in animal models as a tool to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind these events. In the clinic, LSCI is being leveraged as a non-invasive monitoring tool for neurosurgery that could help reduce the risk of postoperative blood flow deficits. The photothrombotic stroke model generates localized and reproducible ischemic infarcts that are useful for studying recovery mechanisms, but its failure to produce a substantial ischemic penumbra weakens its resemblance to human stroke. We examined whether a modification of this approach, confining photodamage to arteries on the cortical surface (artery-targeted photothrombosis), could better reproduce aspects of the penumbra. Following artery-targeted or traditional photothrombosis to the motor cortex of mice, post-ischemic cerebral blood flow was measured using multi-exposure speckle imaging at 6, 48, and 120 h post-occlusion. Artery-targeted photothrombosis produced a more graded penumbra at 48 and 120 h. The density of isolectin B4 vessels in peri-infarct cortex was similarly increased after both types of infarcts compared to sham at 2 weeks. These results indicate that both models instigated post-ischemic vascular structural changes. Finally, we determined whether the strength of the traditional photothrombotic approach for modeling upper-extremity motor impairments extends to the artery-targeted approach. In adult mice that were proficient in a skilled reaching task, small motor-cortical infarcts impaired skilled-reaching performance for up to 10 days. These results support that artery-targeted photothrombosis widens the penumbra while maintaining the ability to create localized infarcts useful for modeling post-stroke impairments. We present a dual-modality imaging system combining laser speckle contrast imaging and oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence to simultaneously map cortical blood flow and oxygen tension (p O2) in mice. Phosphorescence signal localization is achieved through the use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) that allows for selective excitation of arbitrary regions of interest. By targeting both excitation maxima of the oxygen-sensitive Oxyphor Pt G4, we are able to examine the effects of excitation wavelength on the measured phosphorescence lifetime. We demonstrate the ability to measure the differences in p O2 between arteries and veins and large changes during a hyperoxic challenge. We dynamically monitor blood flow and p O2 during DMD-targeted photothrombotic occlusion of an arteriole and highlight the presence of an ischemia-induced depolarization. Chronic tracking of the ischemic lesion over eight days revealed a rapid recovery, with the targeted vessel fully reperfusing and p O2 returning to baseline values within five days. This system has broad applications for studying the acute and chronic pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and other vascular diseases of the brain. Previous findings that skill learning is associated with the formation and preferential stabilization of new dendritic spines in cortex have raised the possibility that this preferential stabilization is a mechanism for lasting skill memory. We investigated this possibility in adult mice using in vivo two-photon imaging to monitor spine dynamics on superficial apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons in motor cortex during manual skill learning. Spine formation increased over the first 3 days of training on a skilled reaching task, followed by increased spine elimination. A greater proportion of spines formed during the first 3 training days were lost if training stopped after 3, compared with 15 days. However, performance gains achieved in 3 training days persisted, indicating that preferential new spine stabilization was non-essential for skill retention. Consistent with a role in ongoing skill refinement, the persistence of spines formed early in training strongly predicted performance improvements. Finally, while we observed no net spine density change on superficial dendrites, the density of spines on deeper apical branches of the same neuronal population was increased regardless of training duration, suggestive of a potential role in the retention of the initial skill memory. Together, these results indicate dendritic subpopulation-dependent variation in spine structural responses to skill learning, which potentially reflect distinct contributions to the refinement and retention of newly acquired motor skills. Despite significant advancements of optical imaging techniques for mapping hemodynamics in small animal models, it remains challenging to combine imaging with spatially resolved electrical recording of individual neurons especially for longitudinal studies. This is largely due to the strong invasiveness to the living brain from the penetrating electrodes and their limited compatibility with longitudinal imaging. We implant arrays of ultraflexible nanoelectronic threads (NETs) in mice for neural recording both at the brain surface and intracortically, which maintain great tissue compatibility chronically. By mounting a cranial window atop of the NET arrays that allows for chronic optical access, we establish a multimodal platform that combines spatially resolved electrical recording of neural activity and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF) for longitudinal studies. We induce peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) by targeted photothrombosis, and show the ability to detect its occurrence and propagation through spatiotemporal variations in both extracellular potentials and CBF. We also demonstrate chronic tracking of single-unit neural activity and CBF over days after photothrombosis, from which we observe reperfusion and increased firing rates. This multimodal platform enables simultaneous mapping of neural activity and hemodynamic parameters at the microscale for quantitative, longitudinal comparisons with minimal perturbation to the baseline neurophysiology. The ability to spatiotemporally resolve and chronically track CBF and neural electrical activity in the same living brain region has broad applications for studying the interplay between neural and hemodynamic responses in health and in cerebrovascular and neurological pathologies. Multiple studies have demonstrated that laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has high potential to be a valuable cerebral blood flow monitoring technique during neurosurgery. However, the quantitative accuracy and sensitivity of LSCI is limited, and highly dependent on the exposure time. An extension to LSCI called multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) overcomes these limitations, and was evaluated intraoperatively in patients undergoing brain tumor resection. This clinical study (n = 8) recorded multiple exposure times from the same cortical tissue area spanning 0.5–20 ms, and evaluated images individually as single-exposure LSCI and jointly using the MESI model. This study demonstrated that the MESI estimates provided the broadest flow sensitivity for sampling the flow magnitude in the human brain, closely followed by the shorter exposure times. Conservation of flow analysis on vascular bifurcations was used to validate physiological accuracy, with highly conserved flow estimates ( Laser speckle contrast imaging has become a ubiquitous tool for imaging blood flow in a variety of tissues. However, due to its widefield imaging nature, the measured speckle contrast is a depth integrated quantity and interpretation of baseline values and the depth dependent sensitivity of those values to changes in underlying flow has not been thoroughly evaluated. Using dynamic light scattering Monte Carlo simulations, the sensitivity of the autocorrelation function and speckle contrast to flow changes in the cerebral cortex was extensively examined. These simulations demonstrate that the sensitivity of the inverse autocorrelation time, 1/τc, varies across the field of view: directly over surface vessels 1/τc is strongly localized to the single vessel, while parenchymal ROIs have a larger sensitivity to flow changes at depths up to 500 μm into the tissue and up to 200 μm lateral to the ROI. It is also shown that utilizing the commonly used models the relate 1τc to flow resulted in nearly the same sensitivity to the underlying flow, but fail to accurately relate speckle contrast values to absolute 1/τc. Multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) is a camera-based flow-imaging technique for quantitative blood-flow monitoring by mapping the speckle-contrast dependence on camera exposure duration. The ability of laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the temporal dynamics of backscattered and interfering coherent fields, in terms of the accuracy of autocorrelation measurements, is a major unresolved issue in quantitative speckle flowmetry. MESI fits for a number of parameters including an estimate of the electric field autocorrelation decay time from the imaged speckles. We compare the MESI-determined correlation times in vitro and in vivo with accepted true values from direct temporal measurements acquired with a photon-counting photon-multiplier tube and an autocorrelator board. The correlation times estimated by MESI in vivo remain on average within 14±11% of those obtained from direct temporal autocorrelation measurements, demonstrating that MESI yields highly comparable statistics of the time-varying fields that can be useful for applications seeking not only quantitative blood flow dynamics but also absolute perfusion. Speckle contrast imaging enables rapid mapping of relative blood flow distributions using camera detection of back-scattered laser light. However, speckle derived flow measures deviate from direct measurements of erythrocyte speeds by 47 ± 15% (n = 13 mice) in vessels of various calibers. Alternatively, deviations with estimates of volumetric flux are on average 91 ± 43%. We highlight and attempt to alleviate this discrepancy by accounting for the effects of multiple dynamic scattering with speckle imaging of microfluidic channels of varying sizes and then with red blood cell (RBC) tracking correlated speckle imaging of vascular flows in the cerebral cortex. By revisiting the governing dynamic light scattering models, we test the ability to predict the degree of multiple dynamic scattering across vessels in order to correct for the observed discrepancies between relative RBC speeds and multi-exposure speckle imaging estimates of inverse correlation times. The analysis reveals that traditional speckle contrast imagery of vascular flows is neither a measure of volumetric flux nor particle speed, but rather the product of speed and vessel diameter. The corrected speckle estimates of the relative RBC speeds have an average 10 ± 3% deviation in vivo with those obtained from RBC tracking. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) provides a rapid characterization of cortical flow dynamics for functional monitoring of the microcirculation. The technique stems from interactions of laser light with moving particles. These interactions encode the encountered Doppler phenomena within a random interference pattern imaged in widefield, known as laser speckle. Studies of neurovascular function and coupling with LSCI have benefited from the real-time characterization of functional dynamics in the laboratory setting through quantification of perfusion dynamics. While the technique has largely been relegated to acute small animal imaging, its scalability is being assessed and characterized for both chronic and clinical neurovascular imaging. Monitoring the progression of the vascular structure and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after brain injury is vital to understand the neurovascular recovery process. Multiexposure speckle imaging (MESI) provides a quantitatively accurate technique for chronically measuring the postocclusion CBF perfusion of the infarct and peri-infarct regions in rodent stroke models, while multiphoton microscopy offers direct visualization of the microvascular structure. In this paper, we present imaging outcomes extending 35 days after photo-thrombotic occlusion, tracking the progression of the vasculature throughout this period. We compare MESI flow estimates within the unresolvable parenchyma with subsurface microvascular volume fractions taken with two-photon microscopy in the same regions to assess how the vascular density influences the surface-integrated MESI flow values. The MESI flow measurements and volume fractions are shown to have high correlations (r=0.90) within areas of recovering vasculature in the peri-infarct region. We also observe vascular reorientation occurring within the microvascular structure throughout the 35-day postocclusion period. With the combination of a chronic mouse model and relatively noninvasive optical imaging techniques, we present an imaging protocol for monitoring long-term vascular progression after photo-thrombotic occlusion with the potential to test the efficacy of rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies. Although multiple intraoperative cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring techniques are currently available, a quantitative method that allows for continuous monitoring and that can be easily integrated into the surgical workflow is still needed. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an optical imaging technique with a high spatiotemporal resolution that has been recently demonstrated as feasible and effective for intraoperative monitoring of CBF during neurosurgical procedures. This study demonstrates the impact of retrospective motion correction on the quantitative analysis of intraoperatively acquired LSCI images. LSCI images were acquired through a surgical microscope during brain tumor resection procedures from 10 patients under baseline conditions and after a cortical stimulation in three of those patients. The patient’s electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded during acquisition for postprocess correction of pulsatile artifacts. Automatic image registration was retrospectively performed to correct for tissue motion artifacts, and the performance of rigid and nonrigid transformations was compared. In baseline cases, the original images had 25%±27% noise across 16 regions of interest (ROIs). ECG filtering moderately reduced the noise to 20%±21%, while image registration resulted in a further noise reduction of 15%±4%. Combined ECG filtering and image registration significantly reduced the noise to 6.2%±2.6% (p Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a powerful and simple method for full field imaging of blood flow. However, the depth dependence and the degree of multiple scattering have not been thoroughly investigated. We employ three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of photon propagation combined with high resolution vascular anatomy to investigate these two issues. We found that 95% of the detected signal comes from the top 700 μm of tissue. Additionally, we observed that single-intravascular scattering is an accurate description of photon sampling dynamics, but that regions of interest (ROIs) in areas free of obvious surface vessels had fewer intravascular scattering events than ROI over resolved surface vessels. Furthermore, we observed that the local vascular anatomy can strongly affect the depth dependence of LSCI. We performed simulations over a wide range of intravascular and extravascular scattering properties to confirm the applicability of these results to LSCI imaging over a wide range of visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Improved Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) blood flow analyses that incorporate inverse models of the underlying laser-tissue interaction have been used to develop more quantitative implementations of speckle flowmetry such as Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI). In this paper, we determine the optimal camera exposure durations required for obtaining flow information with comparable accuracy with the prevailing MESI implementation utilized in recent in vivo rodent studies. A looping leave-one-out (LOO) algorithm was used to identify exposure subsets which were analyzed for accuracy against flows obtained from analysis with the original full exposure set over 9 animals comprising n = 314 regional flow measurements. From the 15 original exposures, 6 exposures were found using the LOO process to provide comparable accuracy, defined as being no more than 10% deviant, with the original flow measurements. The optimal subset of exposures provides a basis set of camera durations for speckle flowmetry studies of the microcirculation and confers a two-fold faster acquisition rate and a 28% reduction in processing time without sacrificing accuracy. Additionally, the optimization process can be used to identify further reductions in the exposure subsets for tailoring imaging over less expansive flow distributions to enable even faster imaging. Laser speckle contrast imaging has become a widely used tool for dynamic imaging of blood flow, both in animal models and in the clinic. Typically, laser speckle contrast imaging is performed using scientific-grade instrumentation. However, due to recent advances in camera technology, these expensive components may not be necessary to produce accurate images. In this paper, we demonstrate that a consumer-grade webcam can be used to visualize changes in flow, both in a microfluidic flow phantom and in vivo in a mouse model. A two-camera setup was used to simultaneously image with a high performance monochrome CCD camera and the webcam for direct comparison. The webcam was also tested with inexpensive aspheric lenses and a laser pointer for a complete low-cost, compact setup ($90, 5.6 cm length, 25 g). The CCD and webcam showed excellent agreement with the two-camera setup, and the inexpensive setup was used to image dynamic blood flow changes before and after a targeted cerebral occlusion. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) offers a cost-effective means to image blood flow in vivo. However, it is not commonly used to image rodent retinas because of the challenges associated with imaging through the curved cornea and delivering light through the highly scattering lens. A solution to overcome these problems by using LSCI in conjunction with an endoscope to obtain high spatiotemporal blood flow images is described. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging blood flow changes in rat retinas using hyperoxic, hypercapnic, and visual (flicker) stimulations. Hypercapnia increases blood flow, hyperoxia decreases blood flow, and visual stimulation increases blood flow in the retina relative to basal conditions. The time-to-peak of the LSCI response to visual stimulation is also measured. This approach may prove useful to investigate dysregulation in blood flow-evoked responses in retinal diseases and to evaluate treatment strategies in rodents. Chronic imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important tool for investigating vascular remodeling after injury such as stroke. Although techniques such as Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) have emerged as valuable tools for imaging CBF in acute experiments, their utility for chronic measurements or cross-animal comparisons has been limited. Recently, an extension to LSCI called Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI) was introduced that increases the quantitative accuracy of CBF images. In this paper, we show that estimates of chronic blood flow are better with MESI than with traditional LSCI. We evaluate the accuracy of the MESI flow estimates using red blood cell (RBC) photographic tracking as an absolute flow calibration in mice over several days. The flow measures computed using the MESI and LSCI techniques were found to be on average 10% and 24% deviant (n=9 mice), respectively, compared with RBC velocity changes. We also map CBF dynamics after photo-thrombosis of selected cortical microvasculature. Correlations of flow dynamics with RBC tracking were closer with MESI (r=0.88) than with LSCI (r=0.65) up to 2 weeks from baseline. With the increased quantitative accuracy, MESI can provide a platform for studying the efficacy of stroke therapies aimed at flow restoration. BACKGROUND: Assessment of the vasculature is critical for overall success in cranial vascular neurological surgery procedures. Although several methods of monitoring cortical perfusion intraoperatively are available, not all are appropriate or convenient in a surgical environment. Recently, 2 optical methods of care have emerged that are able to obtain high spatial resolution images with easily implemented instrumentation: indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of ICG and LSCI in measuring vessel perfusion. METHODS: An experimental setup was developed that simultaneously collects measurements of ICG fluorescence and LSCI in a rodent model. A 785-nm laser diode was used for both excitation of the ICG dye and the LSCI illumination. A photothrombotic clot model was used to occlude specific vessels within the field of view to enable comparison of the 2 methods for monitoring vessel perfusion. RESULTS: The induced blood flow change demonstrated that ICG is an excellent method for visualizing the volume and type of vessel at a single point in time; however, it is not always an accurate representation of blood flow. In contrast, LSCI provides a continuous and accurate measurement of blood flow changes without the need of an external contrast agent. CONCLUSION: These 2 methods should be used together to obtain a complete understanding of tissue perfusion. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has emerged over the past decade as a powerful, yet simple, method for imaging of blood flow dynamics in real time. The rapid adoption of LSCI for physiological studies is due to the relative ease and low cost of building an instrument as well as the ability to quantify blood flow changes with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Although measurements are limited to superficial tissues with no depth resolution, LSCI has been instrumental in pre-clinical studies of neurological disorders as well as clinical applications including dermatological, neurosurgical and endoscopic studies. Recently a number of technical advances have been developed to improve the quantitative accuracy and temporal resolution of speckle imaging. This article reviews some of these recent advances and describes several applications of speckle imaging. The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “In Vivo Microcirculation Imaging,” which includes 14 contributions from the biomedical optics community, covering such imaging techniques as optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic microscopy, laser Doppler/speckle imaging, and near infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging. Monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) during neurosurgery can provide important physiological information for a variety of surgical procedures. CBF measurements are important for assessing whether blood flow has returned to presurgical baseline levels and for assessing postsurgical tissue viability. Existing techniques for intraoperative monitoring of CBF based on magnetic resonance imaging are expensive and often impractical, while techniques such as indocyanine green angiography cannot produce quantitative measures of blood flow. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an optical technique that has been widely used to quantitatively image relative CBF in animal models in vivo. In a pilot clinical study, we adapted an existing neurosurgical operating microscope to obtain LSCI images in humans in real time during neurosurgery under baseline conditions and after bipolar cautery. Simultaneously recorded ECG waveforms from the patient were used to develop a filter that helped reduce measurement variabilities due to motion artifacts. Results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of using LSCI to obtain blood flow images during neurosurgeries and its capability to produce full field CBF image maps with excellent spatial resolution in real-time with minimal disruption to the surgical procedure. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a simple yet powerful technique that is used for full-field imaging of blood flow. The technique analyzes fluctuations in a dynamic speckle pattern to detect the movement of particles similar to how laser Doppler analyzes frequency shifts to determine particle speed. Because it can be used to monitor the movement of red blood cells, LSCI has become a popular tool for measuring blood flow in tissues such as the retina, skin, and brain. It has become especially useful in neuroscience where blood flow changes during physiological events like functional activation, stroke, and spreading depolarization can be quantified. LSCI is also attractive because it provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution while using inexpensive instrumentation that can easily be combined with other imaging modalities. Here we show how to build a LSCI setup and demonstrate its ability to monitor blood flow changes in the brain during an animal experiment. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) has become a widely used technique to image cerebral blood flow in vivo. However, the quantitative accuracy of blood flow changes measured through the thin skull has not been investigated thoroughly. We recently developed a new Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI) technique to image blood flow while accounting for the effect of scattering from static tissue elements. In this paper we present the first in vivo demonstration of the MESI technique. The MESI technique was used to image the blood flow changes in a mouse cortex following photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging technique was found to accurately estimate flow changes due to ischemia in mice brains in vivo. These estimates of these flow changes were found to be unaffected by scattering from thinned skull. How does infarction in victims of stroke and other types of acute brain injury expand to its definitive size in subsequent days? Spontaneous depolarizations that repeatedly spread across the cerebral cortex, sometimes at remarkably regular intervals, occur in patients with all types of injury. Here, we show experimentally with in vivo real-time imaging that similar, spontaneous depolarizations cycle repeatedly around ischaemic lesions in the cerebral cortex, and enlarge the lesion in step with each cycle. This behaviour results in regular periodicity of depolarization when monitored at a single point in the lesion periphery. We present evidence from clinical monitoring to suggest that depolarizations may cycle in the ischaemic human brain, perhaps explaining progressive growth of infarction. Despite their apparent detrimental role in infarct growth, we argue that cycling of depolarizations around lesions might also initiate upregulation of the neurobiological responses involved in repair and remodelling. In this study we present a novel imaging method that combines high resolution cerebral blood flow imaging with a highly flexible map of absolute p O2. In vivo measurements of p O2 in animals using phosphorescence quenching is a well established method, and is preferable over electrical probes which are inherently invasive and are limited to single point measurements. However, spatially resolved p O2 measurements using phosphorescence lifetime quenching typically require expensive cameras to obtain images of p O2 and often suffer from poor signal to noise. Our approach enables us to retain the high temporal resolution and sensitivity of single point detection of phosphorescence by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) to selectively illuminate arbitrarily shaped regions of tissue. In addition, by simultaneously using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) to measure relative blood flow, we can better examine the relationship between blood flow and absolute p O2. We successfully used this instrument to study changes that occur during ischemic conditions in the brain with enough spatial resolution to clearly distinguish different regions. This novel instrument will provide researchers with an inexpensive and improved technique to examine multiple hemodynamic parameters simultaneously in the brain as well as other tissues. First introduced in the 1980s, laser speckle contrast imaging is a powerful tool for full-field imaging of blood flow. Recently laser speckle contrast imaging has gained increased attention, in part due to its rapid adoption for blood flow studies in the brain. We review the underlying physics of speckle contrast imaging and discuss recent developments to improve the quantitative accuracy of blood flow measures. We also review applications of laser speckle contrast imaging in neuroscience, dermatology and ophthalmology. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to quantify the effect of hyper-osmotic agent (glycerol) on blood velocity in hamster skin blood vessels measured with a dynamic imaging technique, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study a dorsal skin-flap window was implanted on the hamster skin. The hyper-osmotic drug, that is, glycerol was delivered to the skin through the open dermal end of the window model. A two-dimensional map of blood flow of skin blood vessels was obtained from the speckle contrast (SC) images. RESULTS: Preliminary studies demonstrated that hyper-osmotic agents such as glycerol not only make tissue temporarily transparent, but also reduce blood flow. The blood perfusion was measured every 3 minutes for 36–66 minutes after diffusion of anhydrous glycerol. Blood flow in small capillaries was found to be reduced significantly within 3–9 minutes. Blood flow in larger blood vessels (i.e., all arteries and veins) decreased over time and some veins had significantly reduced blood flow within 36 minutes. At 24 hours, there was a further reduction in capillary blood perfusion whereas larger blood vessels regained flow compared to an hour after initial application of glycerol. CONCLUSION: Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter of the micro-vasculatures of hamster skin were reduced by the application of 100% anhydrous glycerol. At 24 hours, capillary perfusion remained depressed. The relationship between measurements of cerebral blood oxygenation and neuronal activity is highly complex and depends on both neurovascular and neurometabolic biological coupling. While measurements of blood oxygenation changes via optical and MRI techniques have been developed to map functional brain activity, there is evidence that the specific characteristics of these signals are sensitive to the underlying vascular physiology and structure of the brain. Since baseline blood flow and oxygen saturation may vary between sessions and across subjects, functional blood oxygenation changes may be a less reliable indicator of brain activity in comparison to blood flow and metabolic changes. In this work, we use a biomechanical model to examine the relationships between neural, vascular, metabolic, and hemodynamic responses to parametric whisker stimulation under both normal and hypercapnic conditions in a rat model. We find that the relationship between neural activity and oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes is sensitive to hypercapnia-induced changes in baseline cerebral blood flow. In contrast, the underlying relationships between evoked neural activity, blood flow, and model-estimated oxygen metabolism changes are unchanged by the hypercapnic challenge. We conclude that evoked changes in blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism are more closely associated with underlying evoked neuronal responses. Real-time investigation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb O, Hb R) dynamics has been difficult until recently due to limited spatial and temporal resolution of techniques like laser Doppler flowmetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The combination of laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and multispectral reflectance imaging (MSRI) yields high-resolution spatiotemporal maps of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in response to functional cortical activation. During acute focal cerebral ischemia, changes in Hb O and Hb R are much larger than in functional activation, resulting in the failure of the Beer-Lambert approximation to yield accurate results. We describe the use of simultaneous LSF and MSRI, using a nonlinear Monte Carlo fitting technique, to record rapid changes in CBF, Hb O, Hb R, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during acute focal cerebral ischemia induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (d MCAO) and reperfusion. This technique captures CBF and CMRO2 changes during hemodynamic and metabolic events with high temporal and spatial resolution through the intact skull and demonstrates the utility of simultaneous LSF and MSRI in mouse models of cere-brovascular disease. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a minimally invasive full field optical technique used to generate blood flow maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. The lack of quantitative accuracy and the inability to predict flows in the presence of static scatterers such as an intact or thinned skull have been the primary limitation of LSCI. We present a new Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI) instrument that has potential to obtain quantitative baseline flow measures. We show that the MESI instrument extends the range over which relative flow measurements are linear. We also present a new speckle model which can discriminate flows in the presence of static scatters. We show that in the presence of static scatterers the new model used along with the new MESI instrument can predict correlation times of flow consistently to within 10% of the value without static scatterers compared to an average deviation of more than 100% from the value without static scatterers using traditional LSCI. We also show that the new speckle model used with the MESI instrument can maintain the linearity of relative flow measurements in the presence of static scatterers. Normobaric hyperoxia is under investigation as a treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. In experimental models, normobaric hyperoxia reduces cerebral ischaemic injury and improves functional outcome. The mechanisms of neuroprotection are still debated because, (i) inhalation of 100% O2 does not significantly increase total blood O2 content; (ii) it is not known whether normobaric hyperoxia increases O2 delivery to the severely ischaemic cortex because of its short diffusion distance; and (iii) hyperoxia may reduce collateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) to ischaemic penumbra because it can cause vasoconstriction. We addressed these issues using real-time two-dimensional multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry to simultaneously and non-invasively determine the impact of normobaric hyperoxia on CBF and oxygenation in ischaemic cortex. Ischaemia was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (d MCAO) in normoxic (30% inhaled O2, arterial p O2 134 ± 9 mm Hg), or hyperoxic mice (100% inhaled O2 starting 15 min after d MCAO, arterial p O2 312 ± 10 mm Hg). Post-ischaemic normobaric hyperoxia caused an immediate and progressive increase in oxyhaemoglobin (oxy Hb) concentration, nearly doubling it in ischaemic core within 60 min. In addition, hyperoxia improved CBF so that the area of cortex with ≤20% residual CBF was decreased by 45% 60 min after d MCAO. Furthermore, hyperoxia reduced the frequency of peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) by more than 60%, and diminished their deleterious effects on CBF and metabolic load. Consistent with these findings, infarct size was reduced by 45% in the hyperoxia group 2 days after 75 min transient d MCAO. Our data show that normobaric hyperoxia increases tissue O2 delivery, and that novel mechanisms such as CBF augmentation, and suppression of PIDs may afford neuroprotection during hyperoxia. In the light of accumulating evidence for the occurrence of spontaneous cortical spreading depression and peri-infarct depolarizations in the human brain injured by trauma or aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, we used DC electrode recording and laser speckle imaging to study the relationship between depolarization events and perfusion in the ischaemic, gyrencephalic brain. In 14 adult male cats anaesthetized with chloralose, one cerebral hemisphere was exposed and the middle cerebral artery occluded. Surface cortical perfusion in core and penumbral territories was imaged semiquantitatively at intervals of 13 s for 4 h. Time interval between changes in DC potential and in perfusion was examined, and this comparison was repeated using microelectrodes for DC potential in five similar experiments in a second laboratory. Mean pre-occlusion perfusion was 11707 ± 4581 units (equivalent to CBF (cerebral blood flow) ∼40.5 ± SD 14.4 ml/100 g/min), and fell on occlusion to 5318 ± 2916 (CBF ∼17.1 ± 8.3), 5291 ± 3407 (CBF ∼17.0 ± 10.1), and 6711 ± 3271 (CBF ∼22.2 ± 9.6), quickly recovering to 8704 ± 4581 (CBF ∼29.5 ± 14.4), 9741 ± 4499 (CBF ∼33.3 ± 14.1) and 10 314 ± 3762 (CBF ∼35.4 ± 11.4) on the core, intermediate and outer penumbral gyri, respectively. Mean perfusion later fell secondarily on core and intermediate gyri but, overall, was preserved on the outer (upper level of perfusion) gyrus during the period of observation. Pattern and severity of transient changes in perfusion associated with depolarization events varied with gyral location; falls in perfusion were sometimes profound and irreversible, and followed rather than preceded depolarization. In this model of occlusive stroke, reductions in perfusion linked to peri-infarct depolarization events contribute to secondary deterioration in penumbral areas. The findings suggest that such events play a central rather than a subsidiary role in cerebral infarction in the gyrencephalic brain. Ischemic depolarizing events, such as repetitive spontaneous periinfarct spreading depolarizations (PIDs), expand the infarct size after experimental middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. This worsening may result from increased metabolic demand, exacerbating the mismatch between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Here, we present data showing that anoxic depolarization (AD) and PIDs caused vasoconstriction and abruptly reduced CBF in the ischemic cortex in a distal MCA occlusion model in mice. This reduction in CBF during AD increased the area of cortex with 20% or less residual CBF by 140%. With each subsequent PID, this area expanded by an additional 19%. Drugs that are known to inhibit cortical spreading depression (CSD), such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and 7-chlorokynurenic acid, and sigma-1 receptor agonists dextromethorphan and carbetapentane, did not reduce the frequency of PIDs, but did diminish the severity of episodic hypoperfusions, and prevented the expansion of severely hypoperfused cortex, thus improving CBF during 90 mins of acute focal ischemia. In contrast, AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX, which does not inhibit CSD, did not impact the deterioration in CBF. When measured 24 h after distal MCA occlusion, infarct size was reduced by MK-801, but not by NBQX. Our results suggest that AD and PIDs expand the CBF deficit, and by so doing negatively impact lesion development in ischemic mouse brain. Mitigating the vasoconstrictive neurovascular coupling during intense ischemic depolarizations may provide a novel hemodynamic mechanism of neuroprotection by inhibitors of CSD. Laser speckle imaging of the exposed cerebral cortex allows detailed examination of the time course and topography of perfusion under different experimental conditions. Here we examine the quantitative capacity of the method and its sensitivity for the detection of peri-infarct depolarisations (PIDs). In four cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the right hemisphere was exposed and the right middle cerebral artery was occluded. The brain was illuminated with a laser diode, the speckle pattern was imaged, and images of inverse speckle correlation time (ICT) were derived from the calculated speckle contrast images. We examined the relationship of ICT with perfusion, as imaged quantitively using umbelliferone clearance (CBF). Values of ICT and CBF were compared and regression parameters were calculated for each experiment. In eight cats, cortical surface direct current (DC) potential was monitored at two locations and detection of PIDs by DC potential and ICT change was compared. ICT- and CBF-derived values of perfusion were closely correlated, with a high degree of significance (P The spatial extent of the changes in oxy-hemoglobin (Hb O), deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb R), total hemoglobin concentration (Hb T), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in response to forepaw and whisker stimulation were compared in the rat somatosensory cortex using a combination of multi-wavelength reflectance imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow. The spatial extents of the response of each hemodynamic parameter and CMRO2 were found to be comparable at the time of peak response, and at early times following stimulation onset, the spatial extent of the change in Hb R was smaller than that of Hb O, Hb T, CBF, and CMRO2. In addition, a slight spatial dependence was found in the power law coefficient relating changes in CBF and Hb T. Although the CMRO2 response is a metabolic measure and thus expected to have a more localized response than the hemodynamic parameters, the results presented here suggest that this may not be the case in general, possibly due to the increased sensitivity of optical imaging techniques to superficial cortical layers where the lateral extent of the metabolic and neuronal activation is larger compared to that in layer IV. In addition, we found that the measured spatial extent of the CMRO2 changes was insensitive to assumptions made in the calculation of the CMRO2 changes such as baseline hemoglobin concentrations, vascular weighting constants, and wavelength dependence of tissue scattering. Multi-parameter full field imaging of the functional response provides a more complete picture of the hemodynamic response to functional activation including the spatial and temporal estimation of CMRO2 changes. Laser speckle contrast imaging is becoming an established method for full-field imaging of cerebral blood flow dynamics in animal models. The sensitivity and noise in the measurement of blood flow changes depend on the camera exposure time. The relation among sensitivity, noise, and camera exposure time was investigated experimentally by imaging the speckle contrast changes in the brain after electrical forepaw stimulation in rats. The sensitivity to relative changes in speckle contrast was found to increase at longer exposure times and to reach a plateau for exposure times greater than approximately 2 ms. However, the speckle contrast noise also increases with exposure time and thus the contrast-to-noise ratio was found to peak at an exposure time of approximately 5 ms. Our results suggests that ~5 ms is an optimal exposure time for imaging of stimulus-induced changes in cerebral blood flow in rodents. We studied unique cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to cortical spreading depression in mice using a novel two-dimensional CBF imaging technique, laser speckle flowmetry. Cortical spreading depression caused a triphasic CBF response in both rat and mouse cortex. In rats, mild initial hypoperfusion (approximately 75% of baseline) was followed by a transient hyperemia reaching approximately 220% of baseline. In mice, the initial hypoperfusion was pronounced (40–50% of baseline), and the anticipated hyperemic phase barely reached baseline. The duration of hypoperfusion significantly correlated with the duration of the DC shift. As a possible explanation for the pronounced hypoperfusion, mouse cerebral vessels showed enhanced resistance to relaxation by acetylcholine (3 μM) after K -induced preconstriction (20, 40, and 80 m M) but dilated normally in response to acetylcholine after preconstriction with U46619, a synthetic thromboxane A2 analog. By contrast, rat vessels dilated readily to acetylcholine after preconstriction by K . The transient normalization of CBF after hypoperfusion in the mouse was abolished by L-NA but not 7-NI. In summary, the CBF response to cortical spreading depression in mice contrasts with the rat in that the initial hypoperfusion is pronounced, and the hyperemic phase is markedly diminished. The differences in CBF response between species may be in part caused by an increased sensitivity of mouse cerebral vessels to elevated extracellular K . Laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) is useful to assess noninvasively two-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) with high temporal and spatial resolution. The authors show that LSF can image the spatiotemporal dynamics of CBF changes in mice through an intact skull. When measured by LSF, peak CBF increases during whisker stimulation closely correlated with simultaneous laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements, and were greater within the branches of the middle cerebral artery supplying barrel cortex than within barrel cortex capillary bed itself. When LSF was used to study the response to inhaled CO2 (5%), the flow increase was similar to the response reported using LDF. For the upper and lower limits of autoregulation, mean arterial pressure values were 110 and 40 mm Hg, respectively. They also show a linear relationship between absolute resting CBF, as determined by [C]iodoamphetamine technique, and 1/tau(c) values obtained using LSF, and used 1/tau(c) values to compare resting CBF between different animals. Finally, the authors studied CBF changes after distal middle cerebral artery ligation, and developed a model to investigate the spatial distribution and hemodynamics of moderate to severely ischemic cortex. In summary, LSF has distinct advantages over LDF for CBF monitoring because of high spatial resolution. A simple instrument is demonstrated for high-resolution simultaneous imaging of total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation and blood flow in the brain by combining rapid multiwavelength imaging with laser speckle contrast imaging. The instrument was used to image changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and blood flow during cortical spreading depression and single whisker stimulation in rats through a thinned skull. The ability to image blood flow and hemoglobin concentration changes simultaneously with high resolution will permit detailed quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal hemodynamics of functional brain activation, including imaging of oxygen metabolism. This is of significance to the neuroscience community and will lead to a better understanding of the interrelationship of neural, metabolic, and hemodynamic processes in normal and diseased brains. Although the trigeminal nerve innervates the meninges and participates in the genesis of migraine headaches, triggering mechanisms remain controversial and poorly understood. Here we establish a link between migraine aura and headache by demonstrating that cortical spreading depression, implicated in migraine visual aura, activates trigeminovascular afferents and evokes a series of cortical meningeal and brainstem events consistent with the development of headache. Cortical spreading depression caused long-lasting blood-flow enhancement selectively within the middle meningeal artery dependent upon trigeminal and parasympathetic activation, and plasma protein leakage within the dura mater in part by a neurokinin-1-receptor mechanism. Our findings provide a neural mechanism by which extracerebral cephalic blood flow couples to brain events; this mechanism explains vasodilation during headache and links intense neurometabolic brain activity with the transmission of headache pain by the trigeminal nerve. A method for dynamic, high-resolution cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging is presented in this article. By illuminating the cortex with laser light and imaging the resulting speckle pattern, relative CBF images with tens of microns spatial and millisecond temporal resolution are obtained. The regional CBF changes measured with the speckle technique are validated through direct comparison with conventional laser-Doppler measurements. Using this method, dynamic images of the relative CBF changes during focal cerebral ischemia and cortical spreading depression were obtained along with electrophysiologic recordings. Upon middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, the speckle technique yielded high-resolution images of the residual CBF gradient encompassing the ischemic core, penumbra, oligemic, and normally perfused tissues over a 6 x 4 mm cortical area. Successive speckle images demonstrated a further decrease in residual CBF indicating an expansion of the ischemic zone with finely delineated borders. Dynamic CBF images during cortical spreading depression revealed a 2 to 3 mm area of increased CBF (160% to 250%) that propagated with a velocity of 2 to 3 mm/min. This technique is easy to implement and can be used to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of CBF changes with high resolution in studies of cerebral pathophysiology. Post-stroke blood flow deficit imaged using an inexpensive LSCI system comprised of a webcam, plastic aspheric lenses, and a laser pointer. This image show baseline speckle contrast imagery overlaid with the percent reduction in blood flow following a stroke in a mouse. The scale of the color overlay displays all flows Multiple Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI) used to track cerebral perfusion following an induced photothrombotic stroke. Green denotes areas of moderate flow deficit, while blue denotes areas of severe flow deficit. Rbc rylander rbc bank georgia The well-being of our patrons, performers, and team members is our top priority at the Rylander Theatre. With that in mind, the decision has been made to POSTPONE ALL EVENTS AT THE RYLANDER EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY 3/12/20 UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. All City of Americus buildings are closed to the public and visitors at this time. RBC Wealth Management serves the needs of high net worth, affluent and institutional clients worldwide through a full range of tailored solutions. 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